Sweet potatoes, which look like potatoes, are preferred to eat worldwide, including in India. India is number six on the list of sweet potato exporting countries. In India, sweet potato cultivation is practised hugely in many states, and farmers also earn good profits. As a result, the demand for sweet potatoes remains high in our country and the world. Due to this, farmers can make bumper profits by Sweet potato cultivation.
Sweet Potato Cultivation In India
Suitable Soil For Sweet Potato Cultivation
To cultivate sweet potatoes, sandy loam soil is required, and the land should have good drainage. Do not cultivate it in any other type of land, such as hard, stony and waterlogged land, because by growing it in such land, the development of tuber does not take place properly, which also affects the production of the crop. To cultivate it, the pH value of the field's soil should be between 5.8 and 6.8.
Climate For Sweet Potato Cultivation
The sweet potato plant is a tropical climate plant cultivated in India in all three seasons. However, if you want to produce sweet potato commercially, growing it in the summer is appropriate because its plants grow well in the summer and rainy seasons.
Sweet potato cultivation requires temperatures of up to 22 degrees Celsius to germinate after sowing. After germination, the plant requires a temperature of 25 to 30 degrees for proper development. Plants need more irrigation when the temperature is above 35 degrees.
Land Preparation And Fertilizer In Sweet Potato Cultivation
To cultivate sweet potatoes, friable soil is required. For this, plough the field 3 to 4 times with the help of the Mahindra YUVO 575 tractor. After this, leave the field open like this for some time. Due to this, sunlight hits the soil of the area very well. Therefore, to get good production in sweet potato cultivation, a good amount of manure has to be given in the field.
After the first ploughing of the field, add 20 tonnes of rotten cow dung manure in one acre. Apart from cow dung manure, you can also use organic manure if you want. After putting the manure in the field, plough the field 2 to 3 times with the help of a cultivator to mix it in the soil. Due to this, the manure mixes well in the soil of the entire field. After this, the field is ploughed with water.
Moreover ,when the ground starts appearing dry from above, the field is ploughed with a rotavator 2 to 3 times to make the soil brown. After the soil becomes friable, the field should be levelled. Due to this, the problem of water logging in the field is not seen after the field is levelled. Next, the transplanting of sweet potato plants is done on ridges. The ridges should be prepared by keeping a proper distance in the field. The distance between one med and another is maintained at two to three feet.
Sweet Potato Transplanting Method And Season
Transplantation in sweet potato cultivation is done by planting the cuttings prepared in the nursery. The plant is ready a month in advance for transplanting. Apart from this, if the farmers want, they can buy plants from any registered nursery. After this, these plants are transplanted on the prepared ridges with the help of a Powertrac Euro 50 tractor.
While transplanting each plant, a distance of one foot is kept, and the cuttings are planted in the field at a depth of 20 cm. After transplanting the plant, it should be well covered with soil from all sides. Planting of sweet potato plants can also be done on flat land. They are prepared in beds and planted in rows. Due to this, a distance of two feet is kept between each row. After this, the plants are planted at a distance of 40 cm.
Irrigation In Sweet Potato
Sweet potato plants are irrigated according to the season of planting. If its plants are transplanted in the summer season, then they should be watered immediately after transplanting the plant. After this, the plants are irrigated once a week. By irrigating at this interval, a sufficient amount of moisture remains in the field, and its tubers develop well. If you have transplanted its plants in the rainy season, they do not require much irrigation.
In sweet potato cultivation, you can use natural and chemical methods to control weeds in the crop. To prevent the weed by a chemical process, an appropriate amount of Metribuzin and Paraqua is sprayed in the entire field before the germination of the tuber.
Harvesting And Yield Of Sweet Potato
It takes about 110 to 120 days for the advanced sweet potato varieties to be ready. When the colour of the leaves on its plants starts appearing yellow, at that time, its tubers should be excavated. Light water should be applied in the field before digging the tubers. This makes the soil moist, and the tubers can be easily removed. After digging the tubers, they are thoroughly cleaned and dried properly. According to the variety, about 25 to 30 tonnes of yield is obtained in a one-acre field. The price of sweet potato in the market ranges from 20 to 50 rupees per kg, due to which the farmer brothers can easily earn more than Rs. 1 to 2 lakh from its one-time crop.
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